- Ethereum Berlin Hard Fork has four Ethereum Improvement Proposals(EIP).
- Ethereum London Hard Fork has two Ethereum Improvement Proposals(EIP).
- Ethereum Shargai Hard Fork is supposed to merge between Ethereum to Ethereum 2.0.
Ethereum Berlin Hard Fork launch is scheduled for April 2021 is now live. Demand for Ethereum blockchain has risen, though the average transaction fees have increased. The Berlin hard fork, named after the capital of Germany, was the host for DevCon scheduled in June or July 2020. Delayed, for this reason, the Geth client on which most Ethereum nodes operate was having centralization concerns. Hard fork running old Ethereum clients will not be compatible with upgraded ones. Berlin fork is one of the many road developments to Ethereum 2.0. The Berlin hard fork incorporates four Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs). The upgrade is monumental to a much necessary upgrade to the London hard fork, which will activate EIP 1559 and EIP 3238.
Ethereum is said to launch its London Hard Fork in July 2021. EIP-1559 contains a transaction pricing mechanism involving a fixed network fee that dynamically increases or reduces block sizes to combat network congestion. EIP 3238, known as “Difficulty Bomb Delay,” makes mining difficult, creating the “Ethereum Ice Age.”
Berlin Hard Fork EIP’s
- EIP-2565 “Modular Exp Gas prices,” which will reduce gas costs for modular exponentiation transactions
Modular exponentiation – more broadly known as “ModExp,” is a discrete exponential function important for many cryptographic functions. Will promote a broader range of cryptographic operations for executing Ethereum smart contracts.
- EIP-2718 “ Typed Transaction Envelope” makes all transaction types “backward compatible” using “envelope transactions,” a new feature in the Ethereum network
Typed transaction envelopes recognize that new Ethereum transaction types are hard to add, requiring backward compatibility with previous Ethereum transactions. By Introducing a sort of wrapper or Envelope for future transaction types.
- EIP-2929 ” State Access Opcodes” increases the gas cost to limit transaction processing time and stop denial-of-service attacks
This upgrade increases transaction cost roughly threefold for “state access opcodes,” closing the vulnerability of DOS attacks.
- EIP-2930 “Optional access-list,” a new type of transaction, allows users to create templates for future complex transactions in a bid to lower gas costs
This transaction type bids on EIP 2718 and introduces an asset list on the Ethereum network.
Several mining pools are concerned that Berlin EIP’s will eat into their profit. Until we have July’s London hard fork to see whether its advocates are correct, if it is an increase in the price of ETH as a solution to both Berlin and London fork or putting miners under stress is still a question. Ethereum Shanghai Hard Fork is considered to revolve around the merger of Ethereum and Etherum 2.0, tentatively said to be scheduled for October 2021. Berlin and London Hard Fork will keep the Ethereum community-engaged until then.